学校管理者面临的最大挑战之一就是维持一个充满数百名儿童或青少年的学校的秩序。 学校是社会的一个缩影，包括乖巧和遵守规则的个人以及破坏性的，违规的，有时甚至是暴力的孩子。 大多数学校采用惩罚性的惩戒策略，包括拘留，校内停学，校外停学和开除。 对纪律问题的零容忍是现状。 然而，一些学校正在尝试不同的方法 - 并且正在报告积极的结果。
What Is Restorative Justice 什么是重建正义？
Unlike typical “justice” which focuses on punishing bad behaviors, restorative justice focuses on getting to the root cause of why the bad behavior happened and what needs to happen in order for the victim and the offender to learn from, and move past, the incident in question. In a school setting, this may include bringing students together in small groups to talk, air grievances, ask questions, and express feelings.
Restorative justice practices in schools include 学校的重建正义实践包括：
- Addressing and discussing the needs of the entire school community 解决和讨论整个学校的需要
- Fostering healthy relationships between teachers and students 促进师生之间的健康关系
- Reducing, preventing, and improving harmful behaviors 减少，预防和改善有害行为
- Repairing harm and restoring positive relationships 修复伤害并恢复积极的关系
- Resolving conflicts and holding individuals and groups responsible 解决冲突并使个人和团体负起责任
A few years ago, Schott’s Opportunity to Learn Network (OTL) created a guide for educators who want to use restorative practices in their school to promote positive discipline. The guide provides details on the process and examples of how they’ve worked. “Suspensions don’t work, summonses don’t work, arrests don’t work,” says one 15-year-old quoted in the educator toolkit. “Keep us in the classroom, keep us accountable, and build relationships. That works.” A teacher described the goal of restorative justice in schools as turning “raised voices and closed ears” into “smiles, handshakes, and hugs.”
几年前，肖特的 Opportunity to Learn Network (OTL) 为教育工作者提供了一本指南，他们希望在学校使用恢复性实践来促进积极的纪律。 该指南提供了有关过程的详细信息以及它们如何工作的示例。 “停课不起作用，传票不起作用，逮捕不起作用，”教育工具包中引用的一名15岁女孩说。 “让我们留在课堂上，让我们负责，并建立关系。 这很有效。“一位老师将学校重建正义描述为”将声音和闭合的耳朵“变成”微笑，握手和拥抱“。
Restorative Justice in Schools 在学校重建正义
The educator guide provides examples of how restorative justice differs from the typical zero-tolerance approach. Assume that a student had an argument with his parents before school, and that made him late to class. Instead of the teacher scolding him for being late, which may cause the student to talk back and get detention, the teacher in a school practicing restorative justice might wait until after class to speak to the student. The teacher might learn about the argument at home and refer him to the guidance counselor.
教育者指南提供了重建正义与典型的零容忍方法的不同之处。 假设一名学生在上学前与父母争吵，这使他上课迟到。 如果老师责骂他迟到，这可能导致学生课后被谈话并惩罚。在一所学习重建正义学校的老师可能要等到课后与学生交谈。 了解在家里发生了什么争论，并将他转交给辅导老师。
In another example, a student gets into a minor fight in the cafeteria. Instead of being sent to juvenile detention, getting an arrest record, and facing suspension or expulsion, restorative justice might result in the student agreeing to help clean the cafeteria, and meeting with the school counselor, others involved in the fight, and possibly his parents to resolve the underlying reason for the conflict.
在另一个例子中，学生在自助餐厅中打架了。 重建正义的做法可能会让学生同意帮助清理自助餐厅，并与学校辅导员，参与打架的其他人以及可能是他的父母会面，而不是被送到少年拘留，获得逮捕记录，并面临停课或开除， 以此来解决冲突的根本原因。
Does It Really Work 这样有效吗？
A May 2018 article in the Texas Tribune details a Texas school’s experience with restorative justice. After teachers and administrators attended special training, a middle school in the Spring Independent School District set aside 35-minute sessions twice a week during which teachers and students “circle up” and discuss their feelings. Within the circle, students are required to participate and provide input into whatever the subject of the day is, social media for example.
“德克萨斯论坛报”2018年5月的一篇文章详细介绍了德克萨斯州学校在重建正义实践方面的经验。 在教师和行政人员参加特殊培训后，春季独立学区的一所中学每周两次拨课35分钟，教师和学生“圈起来”讨论他们的感受。 在圈内，学生需要参与并为当天的主题展开讨论，例如探讨社交媒体等。
After implementing the program, out-of-school suspensions declined significantly. Students who misbehave still may be sent to in-school suspension, but the focus there is talking through problems and identifying ways to repair the damage they’ve done. Frequent fights and chaotic classrooms have given way to more order and better attitudes across the board.
实施该计划后，校外停学显著下降。 行为不端的学生可能会在校内停课，但重点是通过问题进行讨论并找出修复他们所做损害的方法。 频繁的打架和混乱的教室已经让位于更多的秩序和更好的态度。
What do you think about a school disciplinary approach that doesn’t focus on punishment? Would you feel comfortable having your child attend a school with such a policy?