- Memorize 3 Fundamental Capitalization Rules 记住3个基本的大写规则
You may think that capitalizing nouns is a trivial (not important) grammar rule. However, poorly capitalized words are a quick giveaway that you haven’t quite mastered English writing. Proper capitalization helps your writing look professional, tidy and correct.
你可能认为名词大写是一个微不足道的（不重要的）语法规则。 然而，缺少大写的名词让你无法很快掌握英语写作。 适当的大写可以帮助您的写作看起来专业，整洁和正确。
The bad news is that it’s really just a matter of memorizing capitalization rules. The good news is there’s not much to memorize. Here are the three fundamental rules you can use to remember which words get capitalized in English:
糟糕的是，要记住字母大写规则。 有利的是不用死记硬背。 以下是您可以用来记住哪些单词用英语大写的三个基本规则：
- The first word in a sentence.You should always capitalize the first word in a sentence regardless of what type of word it is.
- Proper nouns (names).These include the names of people, locations, places, days and months, companies, etc. For example: Matthew, Helen, France, Tokyo, Mississippi, Microsoft, Saturday, January…
- Honorifics and titles, as well as their abbreviations., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Doctor (Dr.), President, Lord, etc.
- I and Me Aren’t Interchangeable I 和 Me 不可互换
Which one of the sentences below do you think is grammatically correct? 您认为下面哪一句话在语法上是正确的？
Matt and I went for a walk.
Matt and me went for a walk.
If you guessed the first sentence, you’re right! However, don’t stress out if you guessed wrong. Many native English speakers get this rule confused, and you may often hear the second sentence in casual conversation even though it’s incorrect.
如果你猜到第一句话，你答对了！ 但是，如果你没有猜对，不要有压力。 许多以英语为母语的人都会对此规则感到困惑，即使不正确，您也可能经常在随意的对话中听到第二句话。
I and me are’t interchangeable. They are used in different grammatical constructs. "I" 和 "me"不可互换, 它们用于不同的语法结构。
I is a pronoun that serves as a subject of a sentence. In the first example, Matt and I went for a walk, both I and Matt are subjects of the sentence while went is the verb.
Me is a pronoun that serves as an object of a sentence. Me is needed when someone else is performing the action. To use the example above, it would be absolutely correct to say: Matt took me for a walk. Matt is the subject and me is the object in the sentence.
"Me"是一个代词，用作句子的对象。 当其他人正在执行操作时，我需要用 "me". 要使用上面的例子，说完绝对是正确的：马特带我去散步。 马特是主语，我是句子中的宾语。
Knowing your subjects and objects will help you use these types of pronouns flawlessly!
- Be Careful When Using Yourand You’re 使用"your" "You're" 要小心。
This is probably the most common mistake on the internet today! Your and you’re sound absolutely the same, but they have very different meanings and uses.
Your is a possessive determiner that attributes something to you:
- Your dinner is getting cold. 你的晚餐要凉了
- Your friends have reserved a table for the party. 你的朋友已经预订了晚宴的桌子
- Your work is impressive! 你的工作令人印象深刻
You’re is a contraction of you are: You're 是 You are 的缩写
- You’re nice to me. (You are nice to me.)
- You’re going to a party. (You are going to a party.)
- You’re a very successful writer. (You are a very successful writer.)
Mistakes happen when possessive pronouns are confused with verb contractions, even among native English speakers. Often, you may see phrases like your wrong (instead of you’re wrong), you’re sister (instead of your sister), etc. These are grammatical errors. They’re easy to avoid. Don’t repeat them!
当所有格代词与动词缩写相混淆时，甚至在母语为英语的人中也会出现错误。 通常，你可能会看到短语 your wrong（ 代替 you're wrong ），you're sister（ 代替 your sister），等等。这些都是语法错误。 它们很容易避免。 不要重复同样的错误！
- Be Careful When Using Their, They’reand There 注意Their, They're 和 There 的用法
This is another case of confusion between pronouns, contractions and, additionally, adverbs. Let’s analyze each of the words in question.
Their is a possessive determiner. When using their, you indicate that something belongs to them.
Their 是所有格的的限定词。 使用 Their 时，表示某些东西属于它们。
- Their car has broken down. 他们的车坏了
- Their dinner party was a big hit. 他们的晚宴很受欢迎。
- It’s not their这位不是他们的孩子
They’re is a contraction of they are, very similar to you’re from tip number three.
They're 是 They are 的缩写，非常类似于第三点中的You're
- If they’re not coming, I’m leaving early. (If they are not coming, I’m leaving early.)
- They’re so happy to have been invited! (They are so happy to have been invited!)
- She doesn’t think they’re going to like it. (She doesn’t think they are going to like it.)
There is an adverb indicating a location of something, whether specific or abstract.
- Your keys are over there, on the table. 你的钥匙在那里， 就在桌上。
- When we got there, the place was already closed. 当你到了那里时， 那个地方已经关门了。
- There is more than one way to skin a cat. (An idiomatic expression.) 达到目的的方法有很多种 （俚语）
Once you understand the difference between these three words, you won’t make a mistake like their nice (instead of they’re nice) or there dog (instead of their dog) ever again!
一旦你理解了这三个词之间的区别，你就不会犯错误，比如 they nice（应该为 They're nice）或者 there dog （应该是 their dog)! 不再出现同样的错误
- There’s a Subtle Difference Between Mustand Have To Must 和 Have To 之间有微妙的区别
Modal verbs in English serve to indicate likelihood, possibility, obligation and more. The most common examples of modal verbs include can, may, must, will and shall. Must is the one indicating an obligation or a necessity to do something.
英语中的情态动词用于表示可能性，可能性，义务等。 情态动词最常见的例子包括 can，may，must，will 和 shall。 必须是表明做某事的义务或必要性的人。
- I must wake up early to catch a morning train.我必须早起，才能赶上早班火车。
- We must understand the difference between “there” and “their” to be better English speakers. 我们必须理解 “there” 和 “their” 之间的区别，才能更好地说英语。
- She must do her homework. 她必须做功课
However, we could also say: 但是，我们也可以说：
- I have to wake up early to catch a morning train.
- We have to understand the difference between “there” and “their” to be better English speakers.
- She has to do her homework.
Both are grammatically correct. So is there a difference? 两者的语法都正确。 那有区别吗？
The difference between must and have to is subtle. Both refer to an obligation, but must indicates an opinion or suggestion. Have to is an expression of a more objective obligation coming from an outside force.
Must和Have to之间的区别是微妙的。 两者都指义务，但 must 表明意见或建议。 have to 表达来自外部力量的更客观的义务。
So saying that someone must do her homework is your opinion. Saying that she has to do her homework signals that it’s necessary because, for example, her teacher requires it.
所以说有人 must 做她的家庭作业是你的意见。 说她 have to 做她的家庭作业表明这是必要的，因为，例如，她的老师需要它。
Must and have to are used interchangeably in casual English. In more formal situations, you’ll stand apart by knowing the difference between them.
must 和 have to 在非正式英语中可以互换使用。 在正式的情况下，通过了解它们之间的区别，将他们区分使用。
- Always Check for Subject and Verb Agreement 始终检查主语和动词的一致性
One of the most basic grammar rules in English states that the subject of the sentence has to agree with its verb. In other words, the verb needs to take a form that matches the subject. To approach fluency in English, it’s crucial to understand subject-verb agreement.
英语中最基本的语法规则之一指出句子的主语必须与其动词一致。 换句话说，动词需要采用与主题相匹配的形式。 要达到英语流利程度，理解主语 - 动词保持一致性至关重要。
The subject of a sentence can be either singular or plural, which will determine what form the verb takes. For example: 句子的主语可以是单数或复数，这将决定动词的形式。 例如：
- She likes
- They like
These are simple sentences with one clause (subject plus verb). 这些是带有一个从句（主语加动词）的简单句子。
But what happens when a sentence gets more complicated? 当句子变得更复杂时会发生什么？
When there’s more than one subject connected by and, it’s a compound subject that requires a plural: 当有一个以上的主语连接时，它是一个需要复数的复合主语：
- Lily and Tom wantto order pizza. (They want to order pizza.)
- Matt and I aregoing for a walk. (We are going for a walk.)
- A book, a few cards and pencils wereon the table. (They were on the table.)
But here’s where things get really complicated. Sometimes the subject is accompanied by an additional piece of information that follows along with, together with, as well as, such as and more.
These don’t change the subject into a compound subject and don’t require a plural verb. 这些不会将主语变为复合主语，也不需要复数动词。
- Lily, just like Tom, wantsto order pizza. (She wants to order pizza. So does Tom.)
- I, together with Matt, am goingfor a walk. (I am going for a walk. Matt is going with me.)
Note that this a slightly awkward sentence, and using a compound subject like Matt and I would be preferable here.
- A book, along with a few cards and pencils, wason the table. (A book was on the table. There were also a few cards and pencils.)
Notice how these sentence elements provide additional information that can be safely removed. The sentence would be less informative, but still grammatically correct.
A simple way to check for subject and verb agreement is to replace the subject with an appropriate pronoun, like we did in the first sentence above.
- Lily,just like Tom, wants to order pizza. (She wants to order pizza.)
- Lily and Tomwant to order pizza. (They want to order pizza.)
If the sentence still makes sense, your subject and your verb are in agreement!
- to be continued -
- 待续 -