To succeed in school and beyond, children need to build a robust vocabulary. Kids learn a lot from the adults in their lives and there are many ways you can help your child learn new words.

为了在学校及其它领域取得成功,儿童需要建立一个强大的词汇量。 孩子们在生活中从成年人那里学到很多东西,有很多方法可以帮助孩子学习新单词。 

We reached out to Education Professor Nell Duke for some tips you can use at home to expand your child’s vocabulary.   

我们联系教育学家Nell Duke教授,获取了一些可以在家中使用以扩展孩子词汇量的技巧。

“Goldilocks Principle”

Try not to overdo it. Professor Nell Duke recommends applying the “Goldilocks Principle” when trying to teach your child new words: not too many words at one time and not too few. A rule of thumb is to choose five unfamiliar new words for your child to learn each week. See how often everyone in the family can use those words in everyday conversation.

金发女郎原则   *(见篇后解释)

尽量不要过头。 Nell Duke教授建议在试图教孩子新词时应用“金发姑娘原则”:一次不要太多,也不能太少。 根据经验,每个星期都要为孩子选择五个不熟悉的新词。 了解家庭中的每个人在日常会话中使用这些词语的频率。

“Multiple Exposure”overdo

Typically, a child needs to hear a new word 4 to 12 times before it is added to his vocabulary. When you introduce your child to a new word, try to keep a mental note of it and work to use it again in your conversations with your child. It is also important to use the word in a variety of different contexts, wherever it applies. Don’t be afraid to throw in a word that you had focused on previously as well. Repeated exposure is one of the best ways to master new vocabulary words.

重复练习

通常,在添加新单词到他们的词汇表之前孩子们需要4到12次听过这些新单词。 当您给孩子解释一个新单词时,请尝试记住它并在与孩子的对话中再次使用它。 在任何适用的地方,在各种不同的环境中使用该词也很重要。 不要害怕说出你以前教过的单词。 反复练习是掌握新词汇单词的最佳方式之一。

Not Black or White”27280612 zebre femelle et son bebe isole sur fond blanc avec des reflets

Many people see learning new vocabulary as a very black or white issue; either you know the word or you don’t. However, expanding one’s vocabulary really exists on a sliding scale. There are words that you have heard before but you don’t actually know the definition. There are words that you understand when other people say them but you would never use yourself in daily conversation. Then there are words that you regularly use in the course of your daily life. Kids go through this as well as they develop their vocabulary. Try not to restrict yourself to only using words that your child knows, and don’t stress if your child doesn’t use the same word you do to refer to an object or item. For example, instead of calling a helmet a “helmet,” your child may call it a “hat.” After a while, though, she will begin to understand the subtle difference between the two and start referring to it as a “helmet.”

非黑即白

许多人认为学习新词汇是一个非常黑或白的问题; 要么你知道这个词,要么你不知道。 然而,扩大一个人的词汇确实存在一个过渡范围。 你之前听过的是这些词,但你实际上并不知道这个定义。 当其他人说出来时,你会理解有些词语,但你不会在日常对话中使用。 你只会在日常生活中用经常使用的词汇,孩子们也是这样的方法来拓展词汇。 尽量不要仅限于使用您孩子知道的单词,并且如果您的孩子没有使用您所做的同一个词来引用某个对象或项目,请不要强调。 例如,不要把头盔称为“头盔”,你的孩子可能会把它称为“帽子”。不过,过了一会儿,她会开始理解两者之间的细微差别并开始将其称为“头盔”。”

“Make Words Concrete”concrete poetry title

As you are teaching your child new words, it is important to help visualize them. For nouns, show your child a picture of it by searching online, or showing a picture in a book or magazine. If it is an adjective, find things that can be described using the word. For example, if you come across “scratchy,” point out the scratchiness of sand paper or a man’s chin. With verbs, try acting out the word with your child. Children love moving around as you explore the words “prance” or “prowl.” 

使单词具体化

当您教孩子新词时,帮助他们想象是很重要的。 对于名词,通过在线搜索或在书籍或杂志中显示图片,向您的孩子展示它的图片。 如果它是一个形容词,找到可以用这个词描述的东西。 例如,如果你遇到 “扎人的”,指出砂纸或男士的下巴的胡子。 如果是动词,请尝试与孩子一起表达这个词。 当你探索 “腾跃” 或 “徘徊” 这个词时,孩子们喜欢四处走动。

“See It, Say It, Write It”principles10

In order for your child to actually learn a new vocabulary word, he needs to be able to read it, say it, and write it. If your child comes across a word in a book and asks you how to pronounce it, encourage him to repeat the word out loud after you say it. Similarly, if your child hears a new word in the course of conversation that is unfamiliar, spell the word out for him and have him write it down on a piece of paper so that he can see the word.

读它,说出来,写下来

为了让您的孩子真正学习一个新的单词,他需要能够先读出来,然后要说出来最后再写下来。 如果您的孩子在书中看到一个单词并询问您如何发音,请鼓励他在您说完之后大声重复该单词。 同样地,如果你的孩子在不熟悉的谈话过程中听到一个新单词,请为他拼出单词并让他把它写在一张纸上,以便他能看到这个单词。

“Read Daily”daily 5 anchor chart poster freebie i like these because they are not already filled listen to reading

Books are the number one way to expose kids to a richer vocabulary. As often as possible, read books with your child. When she comes to a word that she doesn’t know, give your child a quick kid-friendly definition and continue reading.  It’s important not to have a big pause about the fact that she didn’t know the word. When you finish reading the story, go back to the word again and ask her if she remembers how to say it. 

每天阅读

书籍是让孩子们学习更丰富词汇的首选方法。 尽可能经常与孩子一起阅读书籍。 当她说出一个她不知道的词时,给孩子一个快速的适合的解释并继续阅读。 重要的是不要对她不知道这个词的事实大加停顿。 当你读完故事后,再回到这个词,问她是否记得如何说出来。

“Ditch the Dictionary”without vocabulary

Despite popular belief, dictionaries aren’t that great at helping kids with vocab since some definitions include words that may be unfamiliar to your child. Professor Duke recommends taking the time to figure out the definition with your child by using context clues, or the other words around it. Short on time? Give your child a kid-friendly version of the same word instead of having them look it up in the dictionary.   

抛弃字典

尽管人们普遍认为,词典在帮助孩子学习词汇方面并不是很好,因为一些定义包括孩子可能不熟悉。 杜克教授建议您花时间通过使用上下文线索或其周围的其他词语来帮助您的孩子定义新词汇。 时间不够? 给孩子一个适合他们的同一个单词,而不是让他们在字典中查找。

“Show How You Learn New Words”word photo collage maker 8 word cloud makers to create the perfect word collage online ideas

When you come across a word that you don’t know, point it out to your child. Describe to him how you were able to determine its meaning by using context clues. By explaining this process out loud, you will help show your child what he can do when he comes across an unfamiliar word. Highlight the fact that you still learn new words as well. 

展示您如何学习新单词

当您遇到一个不知道的单词时,请在孩子面前指出来。 通过使用上下文线索向他描述你如何确定其含义。 通过大声解释这个过程,您将有助于向您的孩子展示当他遇到一个不熟悉的词时他能做些什么。 突出显示您仍然可以学习新单词的事实。

“New Words Are Everywhere”Words Logo3

Help your child build her vocabulary by taking her to new places and exposing her to different ideas. Visit your local zoo or the nearest museum and have your child describe the various animals and exhibits that she sees. Take your child along with you as you run off to the bank, the grocery store, or the post office, and see what new words you can discover.

新词无处不在

帮助您的孩子建立自己的词汇,将她带到新的地方并让她接触不同的想法。 访问您附近的动物园或最近的博物馆,让您的孩子描述她看到的各种动物和展品。 当你跑到银行,杂货店或邮局时,带上您的孩子,看看能发现什么新单词。

“Words with Multiple Meanings”

Kids are often challenged by words that have multiple meanings. English is full of these types of words, such as “days” and “daze.” It is important for parents to be aware that kids will need help in this area. In fact, you might think that a child understands a joke that relies on word play because of their laughter, but actually most children aren’t able to understand these types of riddles until at least the third grade. To help your child understand the different uses for the same word, ask him to explain the word’s meaning. For example, if he uses the word “bat,” ask if he meant the dark creature that flies at night or the wooden stick used in baseball.

具有多重意义的词

孩子们经常受到具有多重含义的词语的挑战。 英语中充满了这些类型的单词,例如“days”和“daze”。对于父母来说,了解孩子在这方面是否需要帮助是很重要的。 事实上,你可能会认为一个孩子因为笑声而理解依赖于文字游戏的笑话,但实际上大多数孩子至少在三年级之前都无法理解这些类型的单词。 为了帮助您的孩子理解同一个词的不同用法,请让他解释这个词的含义。 例如,如果他使用 “bat” 这个词,请询问他是指夜间飞行的黑暗生物还是棒球中使用的木棍。

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*金发女郎原则 –girls

大家有没有看过童话《金发姑娘和三只熊》呢?迷路了的金发姑娘未经允许就进入了熊的房子,她尝了三只碗里的粥,试了三把椅子,又在三张床上躺了躺,最后决定小碗里的粥最可口,小椅子坐着最舒服,小床上躺着最惬意,因为那是最适合她的,不大不小刚刚好。金发姑娘选择事物的原则就叫Goldilocks principle(金发姑娘原则)。

FaLang translation system by Faboba

Scott Boyce: To sound like a native, think like a native

Many ask: “How can I stop translating in my head when I’m communicating in English?”
许多人问:“当我用英语交流时,我怎么能停止在脑子里先用母语翻译呢?”
The simple answer is: “Think like a native English speaker.”
简单的答案是:“像母语为英语的人一样思考。”

RootsEDU 2019 寒假斑

Can Restorative Justice Improve Student Behavior?

学校管理者面临的最大挑战之一就是维持一个充满数百名儿童或青少年的学校的秩序。 学校是社会的一个缩影,包括乖巧和遵守规则的个人以及破坏性的,违规的,有时甚至是暴力的孩子。 大多数学校采用惩罚性的惩戒策略,包括拘留,校内停学,校外停学和开除。 对纪律问题的零容忍是现状。 然而,一些学校正在尝试不同的方法 - 并且正在报告积极的结果。

Helping Your Child Develop A Healthy Sense of Self Esteem

By definition, self-esteem is the way in which an individual perceives herself-in other words, her own thoughts and feelings about herself and her ability to achieve in ways that are important to her.

成功孩子的父母有这九个共同点

尽职的父母都希望自己的孩子顺顺当当、成绩优良,长大后能成就一番事业,即获得成功。培养出一个“成功”的孩子没有一定之规,不过新近的心理学研究发现,个人的特质可以预见其成功,毫不意外,这些特质很多都受惠于家教。

Helping Your Child Build a Strong Vocabulary

To succeed in school and beyond, children need to build a robust vocabulary. Kids learn a lot from the adults in their lives and there are many ways you can help your child learn new words.

为了在学校及其它领域取得成功,儿童需要建立一个强大的词汇量。 孩子们在生活中从成年人那里学到很多东西,有很多方法可以帮助孩子学习新单词。