What are the differences between a student who starts and ends the school year as a struggling reader, and a student who starts out struggling but ends the year succeeding?

作为一个从学期开始到结束阅读一直有困难的学生,和开始困难但到学期结束时为成功阅读者之间有什么区别?

A recent study comparing the two groups noted several differences in their reading practice characteristics, and one of them was the time spent reading per day. Students in the latter group—the “successful” readers—read approximately six minutes more per day on average.

最近一项研究指出,比较他们的阅读练习特征有几个不同之处,其中一个是每天阅读的时间。 后一组的学生 - “成功”的阅读者 - 每天阅读时间比平均值多六分钟。

In the world’s largest study of the reading habits of K–12 students—encompassing nearly 9.9 million students in more than 30,000 schools across the United States over the 2015–2016 school year—the authors also found differences in average words read (successful readers read more words) and quality of the reading practice as measured by the average comprehension level (successful readers had higher comprehension).

在全球最大的K-12学生阅读习惯研究中,包括2015-2016学年在全美3万多所学校中的近990万学生 - 作者还发现阅读的平均字数存在差异(成功的读者阅读 者的阅读字数更多)和以平均理解水平衡量的阅读练习的质量(成功的读者具有更高的理解力)

The study first looked at third-grade students who began the school year in the bottom quarter of reading achievement—struggling readers who would typically be identified as needing “intervention” or even “urgent intervention.”

这项研究首先考察学期开始时成绩处于倒数四分之一的三年级学生 - 有困难的阅读者通常被认为需要“干预”或甚至“紧急干预”。

On average, the third graders who failed to meet grade-level benchmarks by the end of the year had 14.6 minutes of engaged reading time per day. In comparison, the third graders who met the college- and career-readiness benchmarks for their grade read for 20.0 minutes—a difference of less than 6 minutes of daily reading time. On average, these students also read 100,448 more words and had 11% higher comprehension than their peers who did not meet benchmarks.

平均而言,学期结束达到年级基准的三年级学生每天的阅读时间为14.6分钟。 相比之下,那些达到大学和职业准备状态的三年级学生的阅读时间为20.0分钟,相差不到6分钟的每日阅读时间。 平均而言,这些学生阅读100,448字以上,理解能力比不符合基准的同学高11%。

The study next looked at sixth-grade students. Sixth graders who started the year in the bottom quarter and ended the year below benchmark read an average of 12.4 minutes per day. Sixth graders who started in the same place but achieved college- and career-readiness benchmarks averaged 18.0 minutes of engaged reading time per day. Once again, the difference in daily reading time was less than 6 minutes. These students also read more words on average (230,422 more) and had higher average comprehension (9% higher).

接下来的研究着眼于六年级的学生。 在学年开始到结束基准以下的六年级学生平均每天读取12.4分钟。 六年级的学生在同一时间起步,但结束时达到大学和职业准备基准,平均每天有18.0分钟的阅读时间。 再次,每日阅读时间的差异不到6分钟。 这些学生平均阅读的字数更多(230,422),平均理解能力更高(提高9%)。

6 Minutes and Struggling Readers V2

 

 

It’s important to recognize that engaged reading time is not the same as time spent looking at a page. It’s calculated based on the text’s total word count and difficulty/complexity level as well as the child’s individual reading level and overall comprehension of the text. For example, reading the same page for an hour without understanding its meaning counts as zero minutes of engaged reading time.

重要的是要认识到,从事阅读的时间不同于花在看页面上的时间。 它是根据文本的总字数和难度/复杂程度以及孩子的个人阅读水平和对文本的全面理解来计算的。 例如,在不理解其含义的情况下阅读同一页面一小时的时间会被视为零分钟的阅读时间。

While the study did not examine other variables that can affect achievement—such as quality of instruction or socioeconomic status2—the data show that students who struggle initially but then begin to dedicate significant time to reading with high understanding can experience accelerated growth during the school year. This implies that, in addition to the high-quality instruction and intensive support that we know are essential for struggling readers to learn reading skills,3 time to practice applying those skills is also important.

虽然这项研究没有研究其他可能影响成就的因素,如教学质量或社会经济地位,但数据显示,那些最初困难但后来开始花费大量时间进行阅读的学生可以在学习期间加速增长阅读水平。 这意味着,除了我们所知道的高质量教学和强化培训对困难的读者学习阅读技能至关重要外,练习应用这些技能的时间也很重要。

It also indicates that reading practice isn’t simply an effect of a student’s reading skills. While it’s true that students who read well tend to read more, the fact that students who started at the same skill level but ended the school year with very different outcomes after engaging in different amounts of reading practice suggests that high-quality reading practice could help make significant contributions to growth. In other words, reading practice can be a sign of stronger reading skills, but it can also help build stronger reading skills.

这也表明阅读练习不仅仅是学生阅读技能的影响。 虽然读得好的学生倾向于阅读更多,但从事相同技能水平但学年结束后的学生在参加不同的阅读练习之后获得了非常不同的结果这一事实表明,高质量的阅读练习可能有助于 为增长作出重大贡献。 换句话说,阅读练习可以是阅读能力更强的标志,但它也可以帮助建立更强的阅读技能。

What makes this particular revelation—that a small increase in daily reading time may play a role in turning a struggling reader into a successful one—even more eye-opening is the long-term impact reading skills can have in a student’s academic career.

是什么让这个特别的启示 - 每日阅读时间的小幅增加可能会在把一个困难的读者变成一个成功的读者 - 甚至大开眼界,是一个学生学习生涯中长期阅读技能的影响

Struggling readers in third grade 三年级阅读困难

A longitudinal study of nearly 4,000 students found that children who read proficiently in third grade were four times more likely to graduate on time than peers who were not proficient in reading in third grade. In fact, nearly one in six students who did not read proficiently in third grade did not graduate high school by age 19.

对近4,000名学生的纵向研究发现,精通阅读的三年级孩子比没有精通阅读能力的同龄人能够按时毕业的可能性高四倍。 事实上,几乎六分之一的学生如果三年级没有精通阅读的,到19岁时高中还不能毕业。

When looking at only those students who were far below proficient—students categorized as having “below basic” reading skills—the rate dropped even further, with almost one in four students failing to graduate on time. Among students who did read proficiently in third grade, only one in twenty-five had not graduated high school by age 19.

当只看那些远远低于被认为“低于基本”阅读技能的学生时,这一比率甚至还要低,几乎四分之一的学生未能按时毕业。 在三年级能够精通阅读的学生中只有二十五分之一的学生在19岁前没有高中毕业。

Struggling Readers in Third Grade

Another longitudinal study, this time of 26,000 students, found that less than 20% of students who were in the bottom quarter of reading achievement (0–24th national percentile) in third grade went on to attend college. At the other end of the scale, nearly 60% of the students who were in the top quarter of reading achievement (75th–100th national percentile) enrolled in college.

另一项纵向研究,这次有26,000名学生发现,在三年级的阅读成绩(第0-24个国家百分点)在最后的四分之一,只有不到20%的学生继续上大学。 另一方面,在阅读成绩在前面的四分之一(第75-100个国家百分点)中,有近60%的学生就读于大学。

In other words, the strongest readers—students who were in the top quarter of reading achievement in third grade—were nearly three times more likely to enroll in college than peers who struggled with reading and were in the bottom quarter of reading achievement.

换句话说,最强大的读者 - 三年级阅读成绩在前四分之一的阅读高手 - 读取大学的可能性比在倒数四分之一的阅读困难的学生高出近三倍。

Considering the numbers, the question must then be asked: Could a few additional minutes of engaged reading practice each day, combined with high-quality instruction and other supports, help a struggling third-grade student get on a trajectory toward high school graduation and college enrollment?

考虑到这些数字,这个问题必须被问到:每天有几分钟参与阅读练习,再加上高质量的教学和其他支持,可以帮助一个困难的三年级学生走向高中毕业和进入大学?

 Results of Third Grade Reading Success

Struggling readers in sixth grade 六年级阅读困难

If elementary reading performance has a role in high school graduation rates, then middle-school reading performance is even more critical. A longitudinal study of almost 13,000 students found that only 12% of students who failed an English course in sixth grade graduated high school on time. Another 6% graduated late. The remaining 82% did not graduate by the time the study had ended.

如果小学的阅读成绩对高中毕业率起作用,那么中学的阅读成绩就更为重要。 对近13,000名学生的纵向研究发现,只有12%的六年级英语课程失败的学生按时上高中。 另有6%的延迟毕业。 在研究结束的时候,剩下的82%没有毕业。

 Struggling Readers in Sixth Grade V3

It should be noted that sixth grade is part of a period during which reading gains experience the biggest decline. Over the course of a student’s education, yearly reading gains typically decrease as they move through the grades—which is the normal pattern for cognitive development and not a cause for concern. Students often see very large reading gains in early years; the difference between a student’s reading skills in second grade and third grade is much greater than the difference between skills in tenth and eleventh grades. However, the rate at which reading gains slow is not steady across all years—and sixth grade is part of a period during which that rate is lowest.

应当指出的是,六年级是阅读增长幅度下降最快的一个时期。 在学生的教学过程中,每年的阅读增长幅度通常会随着成绩的变化而下降 - 这是认知发展的正常模式,并不需要去特别关注。 学生在早年经常看到非常大的阅读增长; 二年级和三年级学生的阅读技能之间的差异远大于十年级和十一年级之间的技能差异。 然而,阅读增长放缓的速度在所有年份都不稳定 - 而六年级是阅读速度最慢的时期之一。

If you chart typical midyear Lexile® reader measure ranges (25th percentile to 75th percentile) across multiple grades, you’ll end up with a curve that starts fairly steep and softens as the years go by.7 Viewing the data this way, it’s easy to see that there is room for improvement, but it’s hard to see why we would look more closely at any grade range in particular.

如果您在多个年级中绘制出典型的学年中期的英文阅读分级体系曲线, 蓝思 Lexile® 测量范围(第25百分位到第75百分位),则最终会有一条曲线开始相当陡峭且随着岁月的流逝而变得柔和. 以这种方式查看数据很容易看到还有改进的余地,但很难看出为什么我们会特别关注任何等级范围。

 Typical Midyear Lexile Reading Measures

 

However, if you look at only the changes in typical Lexile reader measure ranges across the years, a different pattern emerges. Here we do not see a steady decline across the years, but instead a steep drop at the fifth and sixth grades.

但是,如果您仅查看多年来典型的 蓝思 Lexile 测量范围的变化,则会出现不同的模式。 在这里,我们并没有看到多年来的稳步下滑,而是在五,六年级急剧下降。

For most grades, the increase in both the upper and lower boundaries is 80% to 100% of the prior year’s increase. From tenth to eleventh grade, the upper boundary increases by 40L, which is 80% of the increase between ninth and tenth grade (50L), which is turn is 91% of the increase between eighth and ninth grade (55L)—and that is 92% of the increase between seventh and eighth grade (60L). However, between fourth and fifth grade the increase drops to 61% for the lower boundary and 68% for the upper boundary, and between fifth and sixth grade the increase drops to 63% for the lower boundary and 65% for the upper boundary.

对于大多数等级而言,最高和最低的增幅为前一年增幅的80%至100%。 从十年级到十一年级,最高增加了40L,这是第九年级和第十年级(50L)的增长的80%,这是第八年级和第九年级(55L)的增长的91% - 这是 在七年级和八年级(60L)之间增加的92%。 但是,在四年级和五年级之间,最低为61%,最高为68%,五年级至六年级最低处下降63%,最高处下降65%。

 Changes in Typical Midyear Lexile Reader Measure Ranges V2

 

It is at sixth grade that students stop independently reading books within the text complexity bands for their grade. Between second and fifth grades, the vast majority of students read at least one book in their target grade band. In sixth grade, that number plummets below 20% and never really recovers. From sixth grade through high school, less than 15% of students, on average, read one or more books in their target range.

在小学六年级学生停止独立阅读文本复杂的书籍。 在二年级和五年级之间,绝大多数学生在他们的年级范围的书籍中至少阅读一本书。 六年级时,这个数字直线下降到20%以下,从未真正恢复。 从六年级到高中,只有不到15%的学生平均阅读一本或多本规定范围内的书籍。

Percentage of Students Reading Books within the Text Complexity Band for their Grade

 

 

It is tempting to imagine what might happen if we were able to reverse these trends. If a few additional minutes of daily reading practice may help struggling readers transform into successful readers, could this also help change these students’ entire academic trajectories? What if adding a few minutes of high-quality reading activities in our elementary classrooms reduced the total number of struggling readers in middle school? Could those minutes keep them reading within their text complexity grade bands, not just in sixth grade but in future grades?

我们很好想象如果我们能够扭转这些趋势会发生什么。 如果几分钟的日常阅读练习可以帮助阅读困难的学生转化为成功的阅读者,这是否也有助于改变这些学生的整个学术轨迹? 如果在我们的小学课堂中添加几分钟高质量的阅读活动,会如何减少中学中困难阅读者的总数? 是否这几分钟的阅读能让他们在复杂度较高的文本中继续保持阅读,不仅仅是六年级,还有之后更高的年级?

What if we made a few additional minutes of daily reading practice a reality for all struggling readers, in all grades? 如果我们在所有年级为所有苦苦挣扎的学生读者提供几分钟的日常阅读,那么会怎么样?

Let us be clear: We are not saying that six minutes of reading time is all you need to turn struggling readers into successful readers. We are saying that, if you have struggling readers in your schools, or if you have ever been concerned about your students’ reading achievement levels or graduation rates, reading practice must be one of your top priorities.

让我们明确一点:我们并不是说六分钟的阅读时间就是让阅读艰难的学生成为成功的阅读者所需要的一切。 我们这样说,如果你的学校里学生阅读有困难,或者你曾经关注过你的学生的阅读成绩水平或毕业率,那么让学生进行阅读练习必须是你的首要任务之一。

FaLang translation system by Faboba

Top 12 English Grammar Tips for Mastering the Language

  1. Memorize 3 Fundamental Capitalization Rules 记住3个基本的大写规则

You may think that capitalizing nouns is a trivial (not important) grammar rule. However, poorly capitalized words are a quick giveaway that you haven’t quite mastered English writing. Proper capitalization helps your writing look professional, tidy and correct.

你可能认为名词大写是一个微不足道的(不重要的)语法规则。 然而,缺少大写的名词让你无法很快掌握英语写作。 适当的大写可以帮助您的写作看起来专业,整洁和正确。

RootsEDU 2018 秋季课程

10 most common phrasal verbs for speaking

What is a phrasal verb?  什么是短语动词?

If you remember, a phrasal verb – it is a combination of a verb with a preposition forming a new meaning. 如果你还记得,一个短语动词 - 它是动词与介词形成新意义的组合。

8月值得观看的经典纪录片

 

Impressionists 印象派简史

在这部BBC的迷你剧中,孩子们可以清晰地看到法国印象画派的画家们,如莫奈、德加、塞尚、雷诺阿等,即便不为世人所接受,却仍旧坚持自己对美的追求和探索,为艺术奉献出了自己的一生。不循规蹈矩,不在意外界的眼光,坚持自己的热爱。

Why Summer Learning Must Include Cultural Activities

For decades, educators have expressed concerns about the high level of learning loss experienced by many students during summer vacation and they’ve stressed the importance of summer learning.

几十年来,教育工作者一直担心许多学生在暑假期间严重的学习流失,他们强调了暑期学习的重要性。 

Understanding Dyslexia and the Reading Brain in Kids

At a recent talk for special education teachers at the Los Angeles Unified School District, child development professor Maryanne Wolf urged educators to say the word dyslexia out loud.

在最近洛杉矶联合学区特殊教育教师的一次谈话中,儿童发展教授 Maryanne Wolf 敦促教育工作者大声说出阅读障碍这个词。