Parents and teachers have long depended on reward motivations to improve student performance.

父母和老师长期依赖奖励机制来帮助学生提高。

You may have offered your child a certain amount of money for every good grade they earn or promised a new video game for an improved report card. Similarly, teachers also reward their students by giving them a day free from homework or other incentives for increased performance on tests or better classroom behavior. While these rewards are effective in the short term, their benefits tend to fade quickly. That’s why emphasizing intrinsic motivation, rather than extrinsic rewards can be more helpful. It is harder to cultivate such motivation, but it can lead to more effective learning.


您可能已经给了孩子一定数额的金钱,以奖励他们所获得的每个好成绩,或者承诺用好的成绩单换取新的视频游戏。同样,老师也会奖励他们的学生,放他们一天没有作业或其他奖励,以提高考试成绩或改善课堂行为。虽然这些奖励在短期内有效,但它们的好处往往会迅速消退。这就是为什么强调内在动机,而不是外在奖励可能更有帮助。培养这种动机更难,但它可以带来更有效的学习。

Limits of Extrinsic Motivation

limits of extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation, which includes rewards based on external factors, can produce almost immediate effects. Most people, including students, like to earn rewards for effort. You may have bribed your child to do yard work with a crisp $10 bill. Despite your firm resolutions, you might have promised your small child a toy if they would just stop misbehaving in the store. It’s easy to apply rewards to schoolwork, too. Money, extra TV time, a trip to a fun park: these are tried-and-true ways to get a child to study.

外在动机的限制

Extrinsic motivation
外在动机,包括基于外部因素的奖励,可以产生几乎直接的影响。包括学生在内的大多数人都喜欢通过努力获得奖励。你可能用10元的清单贿赂你的孩子做家务。尽管你有坚定的决心,如果他们只是在商店里停止吵闹,你可能会向你的小孩承诺一个玩具。也很容易将奖励应用于学校作业。金钱,额外的电视时间,一个有趣的公园之旅:这些都是让孩子学习的可靠方法。

Unfortunately, when students work for a reward, they often don’t really learn the material. They may have no real interest in it other than to get something tangible. In fact, research has suggested that students who might have been intrinsically motivated to learn are derailed by external awards. Some of these students have been labeled “bulimic learners” because they cram for tests and then promptly purge themselves of the information afterward. And negative motivation is also not advised since fear discourages exploration and creative thought.

 不幸的是,当学生为奖励而学习时,他们往往并不真正学习。除了获得有形的东西之外,他们可能没有真正的兴趣。事实上,研究表明,可能具有内在动力学习的学生会因外部奖励而脱轨。其中一些学生被称为“暴食学习者”,因为他们填补了测试,然后迅速清除了脑子里的信息。由于恐惧阻碍了探索和创造性思维,因此也不建议消极动机。

Intrinsic Motivation Benefits and Challenges

intrinsic motivation benefits challenges

Intrinsic motivation produces students with a real interest in the subject matter who learn for learning’s sake. They enjoy exploring the material and mastering it. They don’t look at learning as a way to get things. Instead, they get emotional and intellectual satisfaction from learning math concepts or classic literature. Intrinsic motivation has lasting effects, often driving people to be lifelong learners and even leading them to careers they will enjoy in the future.

内在动机的好处和挑战

intrinsic motivation内在动机使学生对于为学习而学习的主题产生真正的兴趣。他们喜欢探索并掌握它。他们不把学习视为一种获取方式。相反,他们通过学习数学概念或经典文学获得情感和智力上的满足感。内在动机具有持久的影响,通常会促使人们成为终身学习者,甚至将他们带入他们将来享受的职业生涯。

Intrinsic motivation requires time to build, so it can be difficult in a world that demands instant results. You have to work hard as your child grows to foster this type of learning. Plus, some students simply do not respond to this method. In certain instances, extrinsic motivation may work better for an individual student’s learning style.


内在动机需要时间来构建,如果需要马上看到结果可能很难。随着孩子的成长,你必须努力构建内在动力,以促进这种学习。另外,有些学生根本不回应这种方法。在某些情况下,外在动机可能更适合个别学生的学习方式。

Building Intrinsic Motivation 构建内在动机

building instrinsic motivation

Parents and teachers can help build intrinsic motivation by focusing on choice whenever possible. Many college students thrive in part because they can choose a number of learning paths.

家长和老师可以通过尽可能专注于选择来帮助建立内在动力。许多大学生茁壮成长的部分原因是他们可以选择一些学习途径。

It’s important to build your child’s self-esteem so that they dare to learn but provide honest feedback as well. Students need to hear about their strengths and their weaknesses. Learning without constructive criticism is not effective.

重要的是要建立孩子的自尊心,以便他们敢于学习,但也要提供诚实的反馈。学生需要了解他们自己的优点和缺点。没有建设性批评的学习是无效的

Extrinsic motivation for learning doesn’t have to be abandoned completely. It works in some situations and for some students. But deeper, more satisfying learning takes place when the student also has intrinsic motivation. Students learn better when learning is the point and not the path to a video game or even good grades.

学习的外在动机并不需要完全抛弃。它适用于某些情况和一些学生。但是,当学生也有内在动机时,会发生更深入,更令人满意的学习。当学习是重点而不是视频游戏的路径甚至是好成绩时,学生会学得更好。